Article Retraction or Correction Policy

A published article can be retracted in the following situations-

    1.There is clear evidence that the findings are unreliable,         either because of misconduct (e.g. data fabrication) or         honest error (e.g. miscalculation or experimental error).

    2.The findings have previously been published                         elsewherewithoutpropercrossreferencing, permissionor         justification (i.e. cases of redundant publication).

    3.If it constitutes plagiarism. 

    4.If it reports unethical research.


An expression of concern is issued in the following situations-

    1.Inconclusive evidence of research or publication                   misconduct by the authors.

    2.There is evidence that the findings are unreliable but             the authors’ institution will not investigate the case.

    3.They believe that an investigation into alleged                       misconduct related to the publication either has not               been, or would not be, fair and impartial or conclusive.

    4.An investigation is underway but a judgement will not            be available for a considerable time.


A correction is issued in the following situations-

    1.Small portion of an otherwise reliable publication                   proves to be misleading (especially because of honest error).

    2.Author/contributor list is incorrect (i.e. a deserving                 author has been omitted or somebody who does not             meet authorship criteria has been included).